VESTNIK
Bashkirskogo universiteta

RUSSIAN
ISSN 1998-4812

Archive | Volume 20, 2015, No. 3.

THE ESSENCE OF THE CONCEPT “CONSERVATISM”: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

Vestnik Bashkirskogo Universiteta. 2015. Vol. 20. No. 3. Pp. 1095-1099.
Abdullina L. S.
Bashkir State University
32 Zaki Validi St., 450076 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.
Email: als_ffs@mail.ru

Abstract

In the article, the methodological approaches and functional characteristics of the concept of “conservatism”, its social meaning and content in the political system of society are considered. It is noted that the emergence of political ideologies, initially “thinking styles”, were caused by ideological and parliamentary discussions, and by subsequent events of the French revolution. The author notes the principles of early conservatism, its strategic tenets in the views of its founders E. Burke and J. de Mestre, and singles out its less large-scale basis relating to including the principle of the imperfection of man taken from the British encyclopedia. Problems of terminological vagueness of conservatism is that researchers methodologically distinguish such concepts as traditionalism, fundamentalism and the conservatism itself, which combines the old and the new, stability and the desire for organic changes in different proportions. It is in the latter sense that notion of “conservatism” is used in the present work. It is noted that it is hardly possible to give a timeless status to its underlying criteria and this understanding corresponds to the situational approach whose essential traits of conservatism are reduced to technological functions within the framework of existing sociopolitical realities in a state. The construction of a strong centralized state is impossible without the use of elements of etatism, imperial ambitions (the Messiahship), strengthening of the role of elite, army and national security institutions in the emphasis on external threats, paternalism. The interests of the society in this approach is fully identified with the interest of the state. Such intellectual tradition of “unity” in Russia, last but not the least, is based on conservative doctrine of I. A. Ilyin who according to ancient tradition viewed the state as the natural union of people which requires “spiritual solidarity between citizens”. The conservative approach to society, its institutions is characterized by the principle of following historical, national and social traditions. This circumstance implies the orientation on social solidarity, the development of national economy and the priority of the interests of the nation and of the state to the interests of the individual or social stratum without which the full development of the society can hardly be imagined.

Keywords

  • • conservatism
  • • tradition
  • • fundamentalism
  • • ideology
  • • state
  • • empire
  • • sociocentrism
  • • identity
  • • solidarity
  • • citizen
  • • nation

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